Pathophysiology of psoriasis: A review
Psoriasis is a complex chronic inflammatory skin disease caused by the dynamic interplay between multiple genetic risk foci, environmental risk factors, and excessive immunological abnormalities. Psoriasis affects approximately 2% of the population worldwide, and dramatic advances have been achieved in the understanding and treatment options for psoriasis. Recent progress in biological therapies has revealed the fundamental roles of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-23p19, and the IL-17A axis together with skin-resident immune cells and major signal transduction pathways in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. In addition to IL-17-producing T helper17 cells, innate lymphoid cell (ILC)3 induces psoriasis rashes directly without T-cell/antigen interaction in response to the released antimicrobial peptides from activated keratinocytes and inflammatory cytokines. ILC3 typically expresses retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor gamma t in the nucleus, matures in the presence of IL-7 and IL-23, and produces IL-17 and IL-22. The number of ILC3s is increased in the blood, psoriasis rash, and even in nonrash areas of psoriatic skin. Psoriasis is significantly associated with cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and inflammatory disorders, particularly the severe type. The similarity of enterobacteria in the psoriasis gut to that in diabetic patients may be related to its pathogenesis. In the current review, we focus on the pathophysiology of psoriasis in the accelerated immunological inflammatory loop, danger signal from keratinocytes, and cytokines, particularly IL-17 and IL-23p19. In addition, pathophysiological speculation with regard to morphology has been supplemented. Finally, the differences and similarities between psoriasis and atopic dermatitis are discussed.